Montepuez Ruby Mining Limitada (Ruby)

The Montepuez ruby deposit is located in the northeast of Mozambique within the Cabo Delgado Province, believed to be the most significant recently discovered ruby deposit in the world, covering an area of 34,966 hectares. MRM is 75% owned by Gemfields and 25% owned by local Mozambican minority partner, Mwriti Limitada.

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MRM produced 83,990 carats of premium ruby for the year ended 31 December 2021.

Auction Results

MRM has generated total cumulative auction sales revenue of USD731.5 million since June 2014.



The Montepuez deposits were discovered in 2009. Gemfields’ involvement commenced in June 2011 when a joint venture agreement was signed between Gemfields and Mwiriti Lda, the original title holder, and Gemfields acquired 75% of the Montepuez mine. It is generally recognised as one of the world’s largest known ruby and corundum deposits and the single largest producing ruby mine.

Montepuez Ruby Mining Limitada (“MRM”) received a 25-year mining and exploration licence from the Mozambique Government in November 2011, following which an amalgamation of concessions completed (concession numbers 4702 and 4703, now 4703C), which is valid up to November 2036 and covering an area of 340sq. km.

Gemfields, together with MRM, aim to lead a sector that has historically remained unregulated and largely illicit, by showcasing the benefits of a more systematic, modern and transparent approach to coloured gemstone mining so that the industry becomes more responsible and legitimate, providing sustainable long-term social, economic and environmental benefits to both the country and local communities.


Megarum Mining Limitada (“MML”) holds two ruby-mining titles, 7049C and 7057C, located in the Montepuez District of Mozambique. These titles each share a boundary with the existing MRM deposit and cover an area of approximately 190 square kilometres and 150 square kilometres, respectively.

Based on the findings of auger drilling done during 2017, four potential bulk sampling locations were identified. A total of 541,000 tonnes of rock was handled during the year, including 42,500 tonnes of ore. The wash plant processed and treated 40,300 tonnes of ore during 2019, with 82 carats of varying-grade rubies recovered.

Pioneering Auction System

Gemfields implemented an innovative grading and auction system for selling its rough gemstones. The auctions are held in secure locations with the material separated into homogenous lots and certified as either having been produced by Gemfields or obtained by Gemfields from third parties. The world’s leading rough gemstone buyers submit sealed bids for individual lots. A sale occurs if the highest bid received exceeds a pre-determined, but undisclosed, reserve price. The auctions have brought a level of professionalism and transparency previously not seen in the industry.

As there was no industry standard for evaluating rough coloured gemstones, Gemfields established its own grading system to assess each gem according to its individual characteristics (size, colour, shape and clarity). This approach has been instrumental in providing buyers with confidence in the consistent quality of the material on offer. Gemfields used this grading system to develop two auction classes, one offering higher quality gemstones and the other for the larger volume of lower quality gems.

Strong Ruby Auction Results

Montepuez’s fifteen auctions held since June 2014, have generated US$731.5 million in total revenues.

December 2019

In December 2019, an auction of mixed higher and commercial quality rough ruby was held in Singapore. The auction achieved revenues of US$71.5 million at an average price of US$77.12 per carat.

April 2021

During March/April 2021, a series of seven small and sequential ruby auctions of a selection of grades were held in various locations and online. The auctions generated aggregated auction revenues of USD58.9 million at an average price of USD171.33 per carat.

December 2021

During November/December 2021, a series of seven small and sequential ruby auctions of a selection of grades were held in various locations and online. The auctions generated aggregated auction revenues of USD88.4 million (an all-time high for MRM ruby auctions) at an average price of USD132.47 per carat.

MRM’s Operations




Health, safety and environment


MRM Beneficial Ownership

The mining operations at MRM comprise several shallow, opencast pits split between three main operating areas: the Mugloto Block, the Maninge Nice Block and the Glass Block. Mining is carried out as a conventional open-pit operation utilising excavators, loaders and articulated dump trucks. Loaded trucks haul ore to stockpiles adjacent to the processing plant, while waste is backfilled into mined-out areas, thereby returning the area to its natural aesthetic.
With the impact of the pandemic, principal operations including mining were suspended on 22 April 2020. This drastically reduced the level of rock handling for the year. During the period January to March 2020, total rock handling averaged 539 kt per month compared to 387 kt per month during the same period in 2019, an increase of 39%.

A total of 1.3 Mct of ruby and corundum were produced during the year, with a focus on high quality, low-occurrence deposits which provide premium rubies. The total carats produced at the end of April was 79% higher than during the same period last year.

Of the 1.3 Mct of production for the year, 1.2 Mct were recovered from Mugloto secondary ore with the remainder from the reprocessed concentrates.

The overall ore grade realised during the period was 3.6 carats per tonne compared with 2.6 carats per tonne in the year to December 2019.

Security operations continue to make good progress in registering a significant decline in artisanal mining activity within and around the concession area. Incorporation of supportive security-enhancement equipment, including lighting towers and wireless cameras, has improved surveillance across the site. Patrol teams are using body cameras, which has resulted in improved monitoring of the MRM concession and adherence to the Voluntary Principles on Security and Human Rights (“VPSHR”).

Health and safety policies and procedures continue to evolve and improve across the operation in order to create a safer and healthier working environment at MRM. Safety training has focussed on toolbox talks, risk-assessing work environments and improving the culture associated with near-miss reporting. Seven lost-time injuries occurred during the period.

MRM’s community engagement and project activities are aligned with the policies of the Government of Mozambique and supplement the Government’s efforts in improving the quality of life of the community. Through its community engagement process, the key focus for the community team during the year has been the continuation of existing health and livelihoods projects, as well as the implementation of a number of new projects.

MRM is 75% owned by Gemfields. Gemfields is in turn owned by thousands of shareholders via Gemfields’ public company listings on the London (AIM) and Johannesburg stock exchanges. Gemfields has no controlling shareholder.

The remaining 25% of MRM is owned by Mwiriti Limitada, a Mozambican company which first registered and held the prospecting licences over what is today MRM’s licence package. As announced at the time, Gemfields and Mwiriti completed a deal in 2012 whereby they established MRM and Mwiriti’s rights were transferred and converted into mining licences in the name of MRM. Mwiriti may appoint one of the five directors on the board of MRM.

Mwiriti is in turn 60% owned by Raimundo Domingos Pachinuapa (“RDP”) and 40% owned by Asghar Fakhr.

RDP is categorised as a PEP, or politically exposed person. As a result of RDP’s 60% ownership of Mwiriti, and Mwiriti’s 25% ownership of MRM, RDP has an indirect beneficial interest of 15% in MRM. RDP, born in 1938, is a former freedom-fighting general who played a key role in the independence of Mozambique from Portugal, which was achieved in 1975. He was then Governor of Mozambique’s Cabo Delgado province from 1975 to 1986 and was Inspector General of Mozambique from 1986 to 2005. Today he holds no official role or title in the Mozambican Government (nor do any of his siblings or descendants). He remains a member of the political party Frelimo and holds one of the 118 seats on the FRELIMO Central Committee.


Total cash operating costs were USD20.8 million (2019: USD32.8 million) with unit operating costs of USD10.8 per tonne of total rock handled (2019: USD5.9 per tonne). The unit cash operating cost was at USD3.81 in March 2020, the last full month of operation during the year. This is the lowest monthly unit operating cost since inception, which is a direct outcome of the building up of operational capabilities with the existing infrastructure.

Total cash capital expenditure for the year was USD3.9 million, comprising USD1.3 million invested in expansion and exploration and USD2.6 million in existing mining and ancillary equipment replacements and the Resettlement Action Plan (“RAP”). Non-committed capital expenditure was indefinitely postponed and where possible committed expenditure was delayed to 2021 as a result of the pandemic.

From The Directors

We’re truly delighted to be back in business after the lengthy pause in both mining and sales and we extend our heartfelt thanks to our hard-working teams, our host government and our clients for their ongoing support.

Adrian Banks

Gemfields unveils US$15M state-of-the-art, industry-leading sort house

Gemfields has unveiled a new ruby sort house at its Montepuez Ruby Mine in Mozambique. The first of its kind in the coloured gemstone industry, it will be on a par with the best diamond facilities in the world.

Please click below to download the full press statement.

Resettlement Action Plan (RAP)

MRM has an obligation to compensate the households and other land users who are physically or economically displaced by the proposed mining in its concession area, in accordance with the local legislative requirements.

Please click below to download the Montepuez Ruby Mine’s Resettlement Project Fact Sheet.

Operational Grievance Mechanism

The independent operational grievance mechanism (“OGM”) officially launched in February 2021, following the conclusion of the pilot scheme which began at the end of 2020. The OGM has been set up by MRM to further its ongoing commitment to transparency and support for the local communities following the voluntary settlement agreement arising from the Leigh Day litigation. The below document provides further information relating to this initiative:

The OGM’s first full independent monitoring report has recently been finalised and a summary of this report can be found below:

Anna Triponel, an independent business and human rights advisor and Toby Hewitt, Gemfields’ Group General Counsel, discussed the OGM’s development and process at a discussion on private grievance mechanisms hosted by the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) on 4 March 2022.

You can view the Q&A by clicking here.


The global coloured gemstone market continues to grow soundly and Gemfields has the potential to expand through its existing emerald and ruby businesses, its recently acquired projects and to apply its successful model to other coloured gemstones.

Related News and Announcements

Update regarding Cabo Delgado insurgency: neighbouring ruby mine attacked, MRM evacuation plan initiated

Following an update on 30 August 2022, in which Gemfields announced increased vigilance regarding the Cabo Delgado insurgency, the Company wishes to report further developments. This morning, an attack attributed to insurgent activity has been reported at the neighbouring ruby mine belonging to Gemrock, which lies approximately 12km south-east of the operations of Montepuez Ruby Mining Limitada (“MRM”), in which Gemfields holds a 75% interest. Details of the attack are being verified.

MRM Commercial-Quality Auction Results

Gemfields is pleased to announce the results of an auction of predominantly commercial-quality sapphire, corundum and low-quality ruby held from 19 September 2022 to 23 September 2022. The gemstones were extracted by Montepuez Ruby Mining Limitada in Mozambique (“MRM”, which is 75% owned by Gemfields and 25% by Mwiriti Limitada). The proceeds of this auction will be fully repatriated to MRM in Mozambique, with all royalties due to the Government of the Republic of Mozambique being paid on the full sales prices achieved at the auction.