Montepuez Ruby Mining Limitada (Ruby)

The Montepuez ruby deposit is located in the northeast of Mozambique within the Cabo Delgado Province, believed to be the most significant recently discovered ruby deposit in the world, covering an area of 34,966 hectares. MRM is 75% owned by Gemfields and 25% owned by local Mozambican minority partner, Mwriti Limitada.

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MRM produced 78,430 carats of premium ruby in 2022.

Auction Results

Montepuez’s eighteen auctions held since June 2014, have generated USD898 million in total revenues.



The Montepuez deposits were discovered in 2009. Gemfields’ involvement commenced in June 2011 when a joint venture agreement was signed between Gemfields and Mwiriti Lda, the original title holder, and Gemfields acquired 75% of the Montepuez mine. It is generally recognised as one of the world’s largest known ruby and corundum deposits and the single largest producing ruby mine.

Montepuez Ruby Mining Limitada (“MRM”) received a 25-year mining and exploration licence from the Mozambique Government in November 2011, following which an amalgamation of concessions completed (concession numbers 4702 and 4703, now 4703C), which is valid up to November 2036 and covering an area of 340sq. km.

Gemfields, together with MRM, aim to lead a sector that has historically remained unregulated and largely illicit, by showcasing the benefits of a more systematic, modern and transparent approach to coloured gemstone mining so that the industry becomes more responsible and legitimate, providing sustainable long-term social, economic and environmental benefits to both the country and local communities.


Megarum Mining Limitada (“MML”) holds two ruby-mining titles, 7049C and 7057C, located in the Montepuez District of Mozambique. These titles each share a boundary with the existing MRM deposit and cover an area of approximately 190 square kilometres and 150 square kilometres, respectively.

Based on the findings of auger drilling done during 2017, four potential bulk sampling locations were identified. A total of 541,000 tonnes of rock was handled during the year, including 42,500 tonnes of ore. The wash plant processed and treated 40,300 tonnes of ore during 2019, with 82 carats of varying-grade rubies recovered.

Pioneering Auction System

Gemfields implemented an innovative grading and auction system for selling its rough gemstones. The auctions are held in secure locations with the material separated into homogenous lots and certified as either having been produced by Gemfields or obtained by Gemfields from third parties. The world’s leading rough gemstone buyers submit sealed bids for individual lots. A sale occurs if the highest bid received exceeds a pre-determined, but undisclosed, reserve price. The auctions have brought a level of professionalism and transparency previously not seen in the industry.

As there was no industry standard for evaluating rough coloured gemstones, Gemfields established its own grading system to assess each gem according to its individual characteristics (size, colour, shape and clarity). This approach has been instrumental in providing buyers with confidence in the consistent quality of the material on offer. Gemfields used this grading system to develop two auction classes, one offering higher quality gemstones and the other for the larger volume of lower quality gems.

Strong Ruby Auction Results

Montepuez’s seventeen auctions held since June 2014, have generated US$898.1 million in total revenues.

June 2022

During May/June 2022, a series of seven sequential mini ruby auctions of a selection of grades were held in Bangkok. The auctions generated aggregated auction revenues of USD95.6 million (a new record for MRM ruby auctions) at an average price of USD246.69 per carat.

September 2022

During September 2022, an auction of predominantly commercial-quality sapphire, corundum and low-quality ruby was held. The auction generated a revenue of USD4.2 million at an average price of USD0.23 per carat.

December 2022

During November/December 2022, a ruby auction of various grades, was held in Bangkok, Thailand. The auctions generated aggregated auction revenues of USD66.8 million, at an average price of USD154.84 per carat.

MRM’s Operations




Health, safety and environment


MRM Beneficial Ownership

The mining operations at MRM comprise several shallow, opencast pits split between three main operating areas: the Mugloto Block, the Maninge Nice Block and the Glass Block. Mining is carried out as a mechanised open-pit operation, utilising excavators, loaders, articulated dump trucks and associated ancillary equipment. Loaded trucks haul ore to stockpiles adjacent to the processing plant while waste is backfilled into mined-out areas, thereby returning the area to its natural aesthetic.

Total rock handling in 2022 was 7.0 million tonnes (2021: 5.7 million tonnes), comprising 1.2 million tonnes of ore and 4.9 million tonnes of waste material at an overall stripping ratio of 4.1. The remaining 0.9 million tonnes handled related to other materials, including slimes handling, waste dump rehandling and road improvements.

A total of 2.6 million carats (“Mct”) of ruby and corundum were produced in 2022 with a focus on handling high-quality and low-occurrence ore. Of the 2.6 Mct of production, 1.2 Mct was recovered from Mugloto secondary ore and 1.4 Mct from other blocks. In 2021, 3.3 Mct was produced, coming in similar ratios between the individual blocks.

The overall ore grade realised during the 2022 was 2.3 carats per tonne (2021: 3.3 carats per tonne). The marginal reduction in grade was attributed to processing a higher volume than during the nine months of operations in 2021.

The Protection Services Department works on principles of combined team mobile operations, the usage of Unmanned Aerial System, CCTV and of force multipliers, that are maintained. Mobile patrol is carried out 24/7 in risk illegal mining areas and pits with deployment of static guarding at key installations. The company drives the focus on continuously creating awareness on the Voluntary Principles of Human Rights in all aspects of its operations with specific focus on the communities surrounding the operations as well as public security forces at play.

Health and safety policies and procedures continue to evolve and improve across the operation to create a safer and healthier working environment at MRM. Safety training has focussed on toolbox talks, assessing risks in work environments and improving the culture associated with near-miss reporting.

MRM’s community engagement and project activities are aligned with the policies of the Government of Mozambique and supplement the Government’s efforts in improving the quality of life of the community. Through its community engagement process, the key focus for the community team during the year has been the continuation of existing health and livelihoods projects, as well as the implementation of a number of new projects.

MRM is 75% owned by Gemfields. Gemfields is in turn owned by thousands of shareholders via Gemfields’ public company listings on the London (AIM) and Johannesburg stock exchanges. Gemfields has no controlling shareholder.

The remaining 25% of MRM is owned by Mwiriti Limitada, a Mozambican company which first registered and held the prospecting licences over what is today MRM’s licence package. As announced at the time, Gemfields and Mwiriti completed a deal in 2012 whereby they established MRM and Mwiriti’s rights were transferred and converted into mining licences in the name of MRM. Mwiriti may appoint one of the five directors on the board of MRM.

Mwiriti is in turn 60% owned by Raimundo Domingos Pachinuapa (“RDP”) and 40% owned by Asghar Fakhr.

RDP is categorised as a PEP, or politically exposed person. As a result of RDP’s 60% ownership of Mwiriti, and Mwiriti’s 25% ownership of MRM, RDP has an indirect beneficial interest of 15% in MRM. RDP, born in 1938, is a former freedom-fighting general who played a key role in the independence of Mozambique from Portugal, which was achieved in 1975. He was then Governor of Mozambique’s Cabo Delgado province from 1975 to 1986 and was Inspector General of Mozambique from 1986 to 2005. Today he holds no official role or title in the Mozambican Government (nor do any of his siblings or descendants). He remains a member of the political party Frelimo and holds one of the 118 seats on the FRELIMO Central Committee.


MRM’s 2022 auction revenues set a new annual record of USD166.7 million (beating the prior record set in 2021, of USD147.4 million).

Total cash operating costs for 2022 were USD46.1 million (2021: USD35.4 million), giving a unit cash rock handling cost of USD6.57 per tonne (2021: USD6.20 per tonne). The impact of the global economy and Ukrainian conflict has put inflationary pressures on fuel, labour and spare part costs.

The total operating costs for the twelve months to 31 December 2022 were USD96.6 million (2021: USD 80.9 million).

Total cash capital expenditure was USD10.5 million in 2022, comprising USD6.7 million invested in expansion and exploration, and USD3.8 million on existing mining and ancillary equipment replacements including Resettlement Action Plan (‘RAP’).

From The Directors

MRM also achieved record auction revenues, reaching USD167 million in 2022 despite operating in challenging and uncertain conditions.

Adrian Banks

Gemfields unveils US$15M state-of-the-art, industry-leading sort house

Gemfields has unveiled a new ruby sort house at its Montepuez Ruby Mine in Mozambique. The first of its kind in the coloured gemstone industry, it will be on a par with the best diamond facilities in the world.

Please click below to download the full press statement.

Resettlement Action Plan (RAP)

MRM has an obligation to compensate the households and other land users who are physically or economically displaced by the proposed mining in its concession area, in accordance with the local legislative requirements.

Please click below to download the Montepuez Ruby Mine’s Resettlement Project Fact Sheet.

Operational Grievance Mechanism

The independent operational grievance mechanism (“OGM”) officially launched in February 2021, following the conclusion of the pilot scheme which began at the end of 2020. The OGM has been set up by MRM to further its ongoing commitment to transparency and support for the local communities following the voluntary settlement agreement arising from the Leigh Day litigation. The below document provides further information relating to this initiative:

The OGM’s first full independent monitoring report has recently been finalised and a summary of this report can be found below:

The OGM’s second full independent monitoring report has recently been finalised and a summary of this report can be found below:

Anna Triponel, an independent business and human rights advisor and Toby Hewitt, Gemfields’ Group General Counsel, discussed the OGM’s development and process at a discussion on private grievance mechanisms hosted by the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) on 4 March 2022.

You can view the Q&A by clicking here.


The global coloured gemstone market continues to grow soundly and Gemfields has the potential to expand through its existing emerald and ruby businesses, its recently acquired projects and to apply its successful model to other coloured gemstones.

Related News and Announcements

MRM Signs Second Processing Plant Contract

Gemfields announces that Montepuez Ruby Mining Limitada (“MRM”), in which the Company holds a 75% interest, has entered into a legally binding contract with Consulmet (Africa) Limited (“Consulmet”) to construct an additional processing plant at MRM’s ruby mine in Mozambique.

Ruby Auction Results

Gemfields is pleased to announce the results of a ruby auction comprised of mixed-quality rough rubies held during the period 5 – 20 June 2023. Highlights: June 2023 Mixed-Quality Ruby Auction Total auction revenues of USD 80.4 million 91 of the 94 lots offered for sale were sold (97%) Average realised price of USD 265.99 per carat The 19 auctions of Montepuez Ruby Mining Limitada’s (“MRM”) gemstones held since June 2014 have generated USD 978.5 million in total revenue One lot of 26.8kg (representing some 30% of the total weight offered) remained unsold. As a result, the average price per carat realised at this auction was considerably higher than it would have been had this lot also been sold.
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